Category Archives: Ochoco National Forest

Forest Service fights noxious weeds in Central Oregon

Close-up of yellow-flowering branches of the Scotch Broom shrub, an invasive weed found throughout Washington and Oregon.

The U.S. Forest Service will treat more than 750 acres for invasive plants across Central Oregon this year that, if left untreated, could choke out native vegetation, livestock forage and wildlife habitat.

Natural resource managers for the Deschutes and Ochoco National Forests and the Crooked River National Grassland have posted detailed plans and maps of the treatment areas to the websites for both the Deschutes and Ochoco National Forests.

These plans have been released to ensure the public is aware of and has access to detailed information about the work to take place, including the reasons herbicide applications may be necessary, products which have been approved for use, and what efforts are being made to limit exposure to the minimum amount necessary to eradicate noxious weeds and protect surrounding watersheds and habitat.

Invasive species targeted for treatment include yellow flag iris, reed canary grass, diffuse, Russian and spotted knapweed, ribbongrass, ventenata, Medusahead rye, whitetop and Scotch thistle.

Often overlooked or unrecognized, these invasive weeds are a major threat to both public and private lands in Oregon. They reproduce quickly while displacing or altering native plant communities and they cause long-lasting ecological and economic problems.

Invasive plants increase fire hazards, degrade fish and wildlife habitat, displace native plants, impair water quality, and even degrade scenic beauty and recreational opportunities. They also reduce forage opportunities for livestock and wildlife.

A 2014 study by the Oregon Department of Agriculture found that invasive weeds cost Oregon’s economy $83.5 million annually.

Planned treatments will take place along roads, at rock quarry sites, within recent wildfires and other highly-disturbed areas.

For 2019 invasive weed treatment plans and a map of planned treatment sites on the Ochoco National Forest and Deschutes National Forest, see this document.

Implementation will be carried out by the Forest Service and a number of government and non-profit partners throughout Central Oregon. Work will follow the design features in the Deschutes and Ochoco National Forests and Crooked River National Grassland Record of Decision for the 2012 Invasive Plant treatment project.

Forest Service land managers employ an Early Detection / Rapid Response (EDRR) strategy for mapping and treating invasive infestations. EDRR increases the chances of successfully restoring invasive plant sites by treating new infestations before they become large, thereby reducing the time and cost associated with treatment and the potential ecological damage.

More Information: 2019_Invasive_Plant_Treatments.pdf

Download a brochure of the “Top Invasive Plants of the Crooked River Basin” on the Ochoco National Forest website, at:

To learn more about the threat of invasive weeds and how you can help prevent them, visit

Source information: Deschutes National Forest (press release)

Help wildlife stay wild!

A trio of wild horses graze

PRINEVILLE, Ore. – Aug. 3, 2018 – Experiencing nature, up close is much of the appeal of a trip to a National Forest – but when visitors take a wildlife encounter too far,  it’s often the animal who suffers the consequences.

Last month, campers on the Lookout Mountain Ranger District befriended a wild mustang that entered their camp. They fed the horse, petted and groomed him, and the horse followed them on rides with their own horses. It was not the first time this horse had human interactions – he’d been coming into the campground for at least a year, receiving similar treatment from campers who wanted to befriend him.

After the campers departed, the horse remained – seeking food from other campers and companionship with their horses. Because of his lack of fear and failure to return to the forest for forage, the horse had to be trapped and removed – a risky undertaking.

“When we have a wild horse that has become accustomed to human interaction, we have to remove the horse from the territory for the safety of the public,” Slater Turner, Lookout Mountain district ranger, said. “This takes a lot of time to plan and execute. My commitment is that my staff will implement the capture and removal in the safest manner possible for the horse, the public, and our employees.”

The horse was successfully loaded into a trailer last week without injury or incident by skilled employees, but not without several days of work and preparation. Wild horses may seem calm and friendly in the forest, but their response to captivity and transportation can differ from domestic horses. There is potential for a life threatening injury when attempting to trailer them.

“This was a very stressful situation for all involved including the horse, which is unfortunate and really unnecessary,” Tory Kurtz, a Forest Service wild horse program manager, said.  “I’m happy that he will be going to a good home and I appreciate all of the partners who helped make this successful.”

“The Central Oregon Wild Horse Coalition is extremely concerned about the rise of intentional interactions between public and wild horses in the Ochocos,” Gayle Hunt, president of the coalition, said. “There are currently several horses which exhibit all the signs of persons deliberately attempting to tame the horses, and many other cases where persons have been observed doing this or have posted photos.”

There are several reasons why taming wild horses is a problem, Hunt said.

“First, the wild nature of these horses is what keeps them somewhat safe, and promotes the level of interaction between their own species needed for immediate survival and long-range sustainability. More urgently, close encounters with people and with domestic horses will almost certainly result in the injury or death of some or all of the players. When domestic horses are allowed to mingle with wild horses, the risk of disease or parasite transmission is greatly increased, as is the likelihood of loss of fear resulting in aggression or breeding attempts between the horses. One photo taken recently showed the lone stallion in question being stroked by humans while their horses were hi-lined in camp. A wild stallion approaching a tied domestic horse would very likely end in strangulation of one or both animals. Too, this stallion is now fearless around humans and the breeding instinct will be unencumbered by any efforts by the human to protect domestic mares. The only way to resolve this situation is to remove the young stallion to a life of captivity,” Hunt said.

The captured mustang has been removed to a private pasture where he will be halter broke before he is sent to his new adopters.

“We are fortunate to have a good relationship with the Central Oregon Wild Horse Coalition,” Turner said. “They have been very helpful in finding a good home for the horse.”

The Ochoco National Forest and the Central Oregon Wild Horse Coalition offer these tips and guidelines for camping and recreating around wild horses:

  • Do not harass, chase, or harm wild horses in any way. This is a federal crime and can lead to a hefty fine and even jail time.
  • Do not feed the wild horses. Handing out table scraps, grain, apples, or even livestock salt, can cause the horse to lose the fear necessary for survival. Poultry feed containing wheat, large amounts of grain, small yard apples, and mineral blocks formulated for other livestock can all kill a horse.
  • Do not touch or attempt to tame wild horses. Doing this causes the horse to lose its fear of people and can lead to the horse being permanently removed from its habitat because of public or wild horse safety concerns.
  • Never let wild and domestic horses establish a relationship. Make certain your horse has not been exposed to equine disease and is current on vaccinations and de-worming. Camp away from known water holes and gathering places.
  • Don’t tie horses unattended in wild horse country. Don’t expect flimsy portable panels to keep your horse safe. Use hotwire pens to leave a lasting impression on the wild ones.
  • Please drive slowly in wild horse areas. You never know when a horse may jump out in front of your vehicle.

If you have any concerns about wild horses please call the Ochoco National Forest office at (541) 416-6500.

A painted wild horse

Sure they’re cute – but its important to let wildlife stay wild. A wild horse like this one (from Ochoco National Forest’s Lookout Herd, photographed Sept. 20, 2014) was removed from Ochoco National Forest in July, 2018. The operation took skilled staff several days to plan and placed the horse’s physical health and safety at risk, because it had lost its fear of humans and instinct to forage for its own food. Wild horses are not accustomed to being confined or transported by trailer, and can be react unpredictably when being caught. USDA Forest Service photo.

Source information: Ochoco National Forest public affairs staff

Ochoco NF employee assists Puerto Rico forest with hurricane recovery

Heidi Scott poses on the wall of a small reservoir, beneath a waterfall

PRINEVILLE, Ore. – July 9, 2018 – An Ochoco National Forest employee recently returned from a five-month assignment to El Yunque National Forest, helping to rebuild the forest’s recreation infrastructure following 2017’s Hurricane Maria.

Heidi Scott, lands & recreation special use administrator for Ochoco National Forest, served as the El Yunque’s first recreation planner, helping to develop a forest recreation and interpretation plan and strengthen connections to surrounding communities.

Hurricane Maria, which formed in September last year, is regarded as the worst natural disaster to affect Puerto Rico on record. The Category 4 hurricane toppled trees, bridges and structures across the National Forest, and left several million Puerto Ricans without power, water or cell service.

When Scott first arrived on the island in January, there were approximately 500 contractors and an incident management team working to clear debris from roads and trails just to allow workers back into the National Forest, Scott said.

Most workers were housed in a hotel on the beach with a generator for electricity and no running water. The local power grid did not come back up until May.

During her detail, Scott helped to reestablish recreation infrastructure, lay plans for new recreation opportunities, and assisted the Forest in finalizing a new Forest Plan.

Fore example, she helped to reestablish visitor services when the hurricane rendered the existing visitor’s center, El Portal Rainforest Center, uninhabitable. The building will be under construction for the next couple years, so Scott helped the Forest revitalize an old ranger station into a new visitor’s center, and installed a series of kiosks, called “portalitos,” in surrounding communities to bring the visitor information to the community.

One of the best parts of the detail was experiencing a National Forest so different from the other forests in North America, she said. Keeping an eye out for the West Indian Mongoose in the field was a standard precaution (because they can carry rabies) and it was not uncommon to encounter the Puerto Rican Boa in the forest.

While re-construction efforts on the forest will take years to complete, Scott said she hopes to return in a few years to see the results.

Related stories: 

Source information: Patrick Lair is the Public Affairs Officer for the Ochoco National Forest and Crooked River National Grasslands in central Oregon.

Ochoco NF reminds visitors to give new foals space

A wild horse nurses a foal in a grassy forest meadow.

PRINEVILLE, Ore. — March 24, 2018 — The Ochoco National Forest reminds drivers and other visitors travelling through the Big Summit Wild Horse Territory, located east of Prineville, Ore., to slow down when passing groups of horses, and to give newborn foals some space as they work to stand up and assimilate to the herd.

This is the time of year when horses have moved down to lower elevations. The majority of pregnant horses will giving birth to new foals in spring or early summer (March through June).

Earlier this month, a foal was born in a ditch along Forest Service Road 22 near Ochoco Ranger Station, about 20 miles east of Prineville, Ore. When Forest Service staff arrived to check on the situation, the foal had gotten up and moved away with its band, but the incident caught the attention of numerous visitors.

“I know it is tempting to want to intervene when you see a new baby horse, but please give it space. The best thing you can do is keep moving to your destination and contact the Ochoco National Forest if you are concerned,” Tory Kurtz, the forest’s wild horse program manager, said.

The forest has established an email account for members of the public to report sightings of wild horses within the Big Summit Territory to assist land managers with tracking and understanding herd movements.

The public is encouraged to email horse sighting reports and photos to

For those interested in volunteering with the Ochoco wild horse program, a volunteer information day is scheduled in May. For more information, contact Stacey Cochran, Discover Your Forest community engagement director, at (541) 383-5530.

To learn more about the Big Summit Wild Horse Territory, visit:

By Patrick Lair, USDA Forest Service – Ochoco National Forest and Crooked River National Grassland

a wild horse, nursing a foal

A horse nurses her foal in this July 29, 2015 USDA Forest Service photo. The horses are part of the Lookout Mountain herd of wild horses, which live on the Ochoco National Forest.


Further afield: Spring wildflower preview

There’s a saying, April showers bring May flowers. But even in March, any color that punctures winter’s gloom makes us wonder “when will the wildflowers arrive?”

Wildflower season brings big crowds to the region’s most accessible mountain meadows, which are renowned for producing dense displays of short-lived summer blooms.

Beginning March 31, 2018, Skamania County will provide shuttle service on busy weekends at Dog Mountain in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area to help alleviate traffic that created parking and safety issues, and visitors who don’t use the shuttle on those dates will need a Forest Service permit before they go.

More information:

Mark Skinner, regional botanist for the Forest Service – Pacific Northwest region spring, 2018 seems like a relatively typical wildflower season so far, in that the first spring flowers don’t seem to be significantly ahead or behind schedule in most areas.

But it’s notoriously difficult to predict when flower displays will “peak,” he said.

“Any place you go there are things that bloom early and there are things that bloom late. There are irises blooming the second week of April on the Umpqua (National Forest), but the lilies aren’t going to bloom until early July,” Skinner said.

Some of the first spring flowers in the northwest arrive as early as late winter, such as the blossoms on native cherries and other fruit-bearing bushes and shrubs.

The glacier lily, Erythronium grandiflorum, is among of the first flowers that emerges at higher elevations, appearing as snowbanks retreat in sub-alpine areas.

A Pacific Dotted Blue butterfly perches on a bluehead gilia blossom

A Pacific Dotted Blue butterfly perches on a bluehead gilia blossom at Marys Peak on the Siuslaw National Forest in this undated Bureau of Land Management photo.

One such area, Mary’s Peak, on the Siuslaw National Forest, is known to be an excellent site for spring flower spotting.

The area is a Forest Service-designated special botanical area.

“It’s a little earlier of a season than other spots in the Cascades, on higher peaks, and it’s also easy to access,” Lisa Romano, the forest’s Public Affairs Officer, said.

The Marys Peak day use area and parking lot are located alongside the largest of the mountain’s five sub-alpine fields, with a dirt road a path around the summit’s other meadows, a rock garden and a streambed, where a variety of other flowers can be found.

If you’re up for a more of a challenge, Tatoosh Ridge on the Gifford Pinchot National Forest in Washington, offers views spectacular views of Mount Rainier beyond exuberant summer flower displays in July.

Longtime northwest hiker Jay Stern filed trip reports from the trail on in 2016 and 2017.

meadow filled with wildflowers

Bands of colored flowers dominate the landscape in this Tatoosh Ridge meadow, photographed by hiker Jay Stern during a July 16, 2017 trip to Gifford Pinchot National Forest. Originally published on by the photographer (used with permission).

He recommends waiting until the July snow melt is well underway, bringing hiking poles, plenty of water, and watching other hiker’s trip reports if you are trying to time your trip around “peak color.”

“It’s worth the effort,” Stern said. “But that first section, the first two miles are going to be steep… you’re going to work for it.”

For a less intense hike, Willamette National Forest botanist Ryan Murdoff suggests the Tire Mountain trail, where visitors can find Washington lily (Lilium washingtonianum), wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca), vanilla leaf (Achlys triphylla), field chickweed (Cerastium arvense), Oregon Sunshine (Eriophyllum quamash), broadleaf lupine (Lupinus latifolius), and other wildflowers. The trail leads into the Pacific Crest Trail system and is also open to horseback riders and mountain bikes.

For access to a variety of hikes and an expansive assortment of wildflowers, public affairs specialist Chiara Cipriano suggests the Iron Mountain, also located on Willamette National Forest.

More than 300 species of wildflowers grow in the area, and nearby trailheads offer several hiking options.

Two popular routes include the short summit hike, which leads to a viewing platform, and the Cone Peak trail, a longer trail but at a a gentler grade that takes hikers through several meadows.

Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest botanist Helen Lau likes to send flower-seekers on a scenic driving tour: from Reecer Creek Rd. in Ellensburg, Wash., to Forest Service Rd. 3500 on the forest, and then follow the road up Table Mountain.

“The diversity of habitats within this drive are wonderful,” Lau said.

Wildflowers paint a red and green swath along the rocky edge of Soda Creek

Wildflowers paint a red and green swath along the rocky edge of Soda Creek on Deschutes National Forest in this undated USDA Forest Service photo.

Visitors who time their trip right can see forested roads carpeted with yellow balsam root (Basamorhiza sagittatta), dotted with showy phlox (Phlox speciose), and brightly-colored penstemon species. At higher elevations, they’ll find rugged, rocky meadows studded with brightly colored blossoms.

Cheryl Bartlet, a botanist based on the Olympic National Forest, also suggested a forest drive; Forest Road 24 to Lake Cushman, outside Hoodsport, Wash.

“It’s accessible to everyone, and is very easy to get to,” she said.

On their way to the lake, travelers pass cliffs and rocky areas supporting a diverse mix of summer wildflowers, including harsh paintbrush (Castilleja hispida), Oregon sunshine (Eriophyllum lanatum), blue-eyed Mary (Collinsia parviflora), seablush (Plectritis congesta), farewell-to-spring (Clarkia amoena), checker lily (Fritillaria affinis), yarrow (Achillea millefolium), columbine (Aquilegia formosa), and sticky cinquefoil (Drymocallis glandulosa).

“Every spring, there’s a pretty spectacular display of seep monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus) and chickweed monkeyflower (Erythranthe alsinoides) on the cliff faces,” Bartlet said.

Just watch out for the equally-bountiful poison oak along the roadway, she warned; wait to reach the lake before getting out to enjoy the scenery, or extend your trip by following trails from the Dry Creek, Mt. Rose or Mt. Ellinor trailheads.

Three Peaks Botanical Area, located in the upper Wynoochee River watershed along Forest Service Rd. 2270, is another top spot for wildflowers on the Olympic Peninsula.

The area was designated as a botanical area to protect ancient stands of Alaska yellow cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis), but is also home to wet meadows that support a particularly diverse mix of species, such as the yellow-flowered sedge (Carex anthoxanthea) and northern Grass of Parnassus (Parnassia palustris), Bartlet said.

Yellow, red and blue wildflowers in a grassy field.

An array of primary colors make this grouping of wildflowers stand out at Starvation Ridge, Wallowa-Whitman National Forest in this undated USDA Forest Service photo.

Other species include elephant’s head (Pedicularis groenlandica), pale larkspur (Delphinium glaucum), sticky false asphodel (Tofieldia glutinosa), arrowleaf groundsel (Senicio triangularis), Canadian burnet (Sanguisorba canadensis), marsh violet (Viola palustris), broad-leaved Caltha (Caltha biflora), leatherleaf saxifrage (Leptarrhena pyrolifolia) and yellow willowherb (Epilobium luteum).

Visitors may even catch a glimpse of Bartlet’s favorite flower, the common butterwort; a small plant, with a purple flower rising from a bundle of yellow-green leaves and one of the Pacific Northwest’s few native carnivorous plants.

The leaves secrete a digestive enzyme that slowly dissolves small insects, and it’s scientific name, Pinguicula vulgaris, means “greasy little fat one.”

“What’s not to love?” Bartlet said.

For earlier blooms, Patrick Lair, public affairs officer for the Ochoco National Forest, suggests visiting the Big Summit Prairie, near Prineville, Ore.

Wildflowers on Big Summit Prairie

Wildflowers abound on Big Summit Prairie, Ochoco National Forest, in this undated USDA Forest Service photo.

As early as April, visitors can find pink desert shooting stars (Dodecatheon conjugens) and lavender grass widow flowers (Olsynium douglasii).

In May and June, yellow wooley mule’s ears (Wyethia mollis) and purple camas flowers (Camassia quamash) begin to bloom in the fields, while pink and white bitterroot blossoms (Lewisia rediviva) emerge on the dry, rocky flats.

In June and July, look for western blue flag (Iris missouriensis), coastal larkspur (Delphinium decorum), giant red paintbrush (Castilleja miniata), Oregon checkermallow (Sidalcea oregana), and arrow-leaf balsamroot (Balsamorhiza sagittata), and Peck’s mariposa lily (Calochortus longebarbatus var. peckii) – a delicate blossom with round, blue-lavender petals that grows only in the Ochoco Mountains.

Fireweed bush grows on a rocky ridge above a lake

A cluster of fireweed grows on Harry’s Ridge, above Spirit Lake, at Mt. St. Helens National Volcanic Monument in an undated USDA Forest Service photo.

For a longer drive, the forest’s Paulina District created a “Scabland Tour” that maps an all-day trek through several forest habitats. The route includes juniper and pine forest, wet meadows, and rocky scabland, views of the Snow Mountains, and a spectacular array of wildflowers, including Arrowleaf balsamroot (Balsamhoriza sagittata), mule-ears (Wyethia amplexicaulis), Sagebrush mariposa lily (Calochortus macrocarpus), lupine, and tapertip onion (Allium acuminatum).

In southwest Oregon, the T.J. Howell Botanical Drive through Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest offers several vantage points for viewing wildflowers and unusual plants, including Eight Dollar Mountain Botanical Wayside, Days Gulch Botanical Area, Josephine Camp, and Little Falls Trail.

Howell’s saxifrage (Micranthes howellii) and Howell’s mariposa lily (Calochortus Howellii) can be seen at various locations. Both named for Thomas Jefferson Howell, one of the state’s earliest botanists.

Another of the Northwest’s few carnivorous species, the California pitcher plant (Daringtonia californica), is found in wetland areas.

The forest’s Rough and Ready Flat Botanical Area is another area known for unusual plants, including several rare, threatened and endangered species.

Three Fingered Jack rock formation with flowers in the foreground

Wildflowers pepper the field beneath Three Finger Jack at Canyon Creek, Deschutes National Forest in an undated USDA Forest Service photo.

McDonald’s rock-cress (Arabis macdonaldiana), a federally listed endangered species, Hooker’s Indian-pink (Silene hookerii), and the two-eyed violet (Viola ocellata) are among the more unusual blooms, and appear alongside more common species like nodding arnica (Arnica cordifolia), coast larkspur (delphinium decorum), and western buttercup (Ranunculus occidentalis). Flowers begin to emerge in March, with peak blooms in later April through May.

Further north, the Sauk Mountain day hike on Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest offers 1500 feet of elevation gain over two miles, with sweeping views of sub-alpine meadows, North Cascades mountain peaks, and the Skagit River valley.

Trailhead parking tends to fill up on weekends during peak wildflower season, so mid-week hikes are recommended. The mountain’s wildflower season is typically peaks in late July.

Wildflowers skirt the shore of Crescent Lake

Wildflowers skirt the shore of Crescent Lake on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest in this undated USDA Forest Service photo.

And although Heather Meadows is better known as home to Mount Baker ski area, forest staff  say it’s also an excellent setting for wildflower hikes in late July, when the snow pack briefly recedes.

The Fire and Ice interpretive trail includes a 100 yard, accessible paved path with seating and an overlook, while Artist Ridge trail is a one mile loop featuring fields of Alaska bell-heather (Harrimanella stelleriana) and species like Avalanche Lilies (Erythronium montanum), broad-leaf lupine (Lupinus latifolius) and spreading phlox (Phlox diffusa).

The Bagley Lakes trail features a 3/4 mile path, with waterfalls and wildflowers along the route.

Green Mountain, accessible via Suiattle River Rd. (Forest Service Rd. 26) off State Route 530, is another popular hike on the forest. Its wildflower season peaks in mid to late July, and is best visited mid-week to avoid crowds.

Wildflowers along Kettle Crest trail

Wildflowers grow along the Kettle Crest Trail, Colville National Forest in an undated USDA Forest Service photo.

In northeast Washington, the 44-mile Kettle Crest – South trail, part of the Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail on the Colville National Forest, offers numerous opportunities for wildflower seekers, as it follows the ridgeline over multiple peaks. One highlight is the White Mountain trailhead, located 30 miles outside Colville, Wash.

Kettle Crest – North also features numerous mountaintop meadows along the route.

For non-hikers, the portion of State Route 20 from Usk to Cusick, Wash., near Colville National Forest, features plentiful flowers along the roadway in mid-to-late May. The route is paved and passable by passenger vehicles.

If you have a vehicle capable of driving off-road (pick-up truck or SUV), consider entering the forest via Iron Mountain Rd. (Forest Service Rd. 9535) outside Addy, Wash. in late May or early June. Look for a rocky outcrop about 1 mile southwest of the junction with Forest Service Rd. 300, for “a stupendous view of the Colville Valley, north and south,” Franklin Pemberton, the forests’ public affairs officer, said.

Highlights include prairie stars (Lithophragma parviflora), desert parsley and biscuitroot species (Lomatium sp.), and shooting stars (Dodecatheon hendersonii), plus “a few surprises,” he said.

But while flowers are a great way to get people excited about the outdoors, regional botanist Skinner believes sometimes people focus too much on timing trips in search of peak blooms, and overlook the flowers blooming all around them, every day.

Glide Wildflower Show; April 28-29, 2018 in Glide, OR. Suggested donation is $3.

The Glide Wildflower Show is April 28-29 in Glide, Ore.

“We have one of the outstanding floras of the world, with plant diversity being especially rich. We’ve got hundreds of species found nowhere else, and some of the most spectacular forests in the world. It’s a fantastic place for plants.” Skinner said.


One place visitors are guaranteed to see plenty of wildflowers is at the Glide Wildflower Show, April 28 and 29, at the Glide Community Center in Glide, Ore. Forest Service botanists will be among those helping identify more than 600 flowering plants gathered from local forests and fields by volunteers for display! Find news about the exhibition and related events on the show’s Facebook page: